Category: NIDA

Drug court and Addiction, AMERSA conference

golden gate bridge

Is drug court meeting the need of the most vulnerable people who use drugs? What is the drug court judge’s hardest decision? What is social detox? How voluntary is drug court treatment?

November 8th, The Association for Multidisciplinary Education and Research in Substance use and Addiction (AMERSA) met for 42nd time in San Francisco, CA. These, and other questions, pondered five AMERSA speakers at the Thursday’s Interdisciplinary panel session.

Meeting the Need: Collaborative Justice and Treatment.

(Interdisciplinary panel, Thursday, November 8th, 2018, 10:15 – 11:45 am)

The panel was presented by:

Judge Eric Fleming, JD – San Francisco Collaborative Courts

Lisa Lightman, MA – Collaborative Courts, San Francisco Superior Court;

Angelica Almeida, PhD – San Francisco Department of Public Health;

Linda Wu, MSW, LCSW – San Francisco Department of Public Health;

Charles Houston – San Francisco Department of Public Health;

Drug Court Judge’s hardest choice.

Judge Eric Fleming, JD

The court calls people who have addictions participants, not defendants. Among others, the key role is to listen as a judge and to show respect. The hardest decision is to decide who’s going to be terminated; terminating very young people is the hardest. Some people have been fighting addiction for 20 years, but not making enough progress. This raises a question: What is enough progress?

It is one of the most important courts in San Francisco, they devoted a chief to it – not just someone pushing them through the system. The court takes high risk clients, those who haven’t done well in previous programs, facing significant punishment.

They understand that there are layers to the individuals, case can be dismissed if it’s the first case, but not the fourth case. If anything happens the system can send them to jail, but it doesn’t; instead, they talk to them and they listen – give them numerous chances. Relapse is considered as part of the process – if judge understands that, it’s good for the client.

The graduation is pretty awesome, it wasn’t easy for anyone. The judge oversees the ceremony, starts with positive remarks, and then problems. I’m proud of you as a judge, I hope you learned from me, because I learned from you. The judge concluded with a story about a young female user, 22-year old, that he had to terminate, before the termination, he made a couple of phonecalls to make sure that she had a place to go when he terminated her.

 

youth opioid addictionWhere does transitional youth belong?

Angelica Almeida, PhD – San Francisco Department of Public Health

Some of the core functions of the drug court system are: (1) Making sure that the services were coordinated, mental health and addiction behavioral health. (2) Trying to keep people in the least restrictive settings by intervening early.

Sometimes, it is a challenge of being a harm reduction city but working in a court that is historically abstinence based. The drug court is offering outpatient and intensive outpatient services. Also, low threshold services – medication assisted treatment.

Harm reduction principles are really what brings people to treatment; not judging them also makes a big difference. Thinking about how they work with transitional age youth, which don’t quite fit to children or adult services, is still evolving. System made to work with adults, really older adults. The transitional age youth drops out of services too much. Next step after residential treatment is always the hard piece.

alcohol drink, methadose

Sobriety doesn’t take a certain number of days.

Linda Wu, MSW, LCSW.

Drug court treatment center has now become a civil service organisation. It is Co-located with community justice and violence intervention programs. It utilizes onsite urinalysis testing, all observed. Four levels of treatment graduation, graduation rate is 20% but 6 months of sobriety required, also housing and income or training – “you can’t be sober if that’s all you’re working on.” After graduation the case manager can help them even after the case is over, because they are part of dept of public health. Clients making significance progress towards recovery despite ongoing use, finding housing or using less harmful drugs such as cannabis. To be able to offer some choices (voluntary program) is really important and confidence-building.

Challenges of drug courts are many. Clients look at the treatment in terms of their sentence – sometimes, they ask how many days I have to serve? Sobriety doesn’t take a certain number of days.

There is a continuous discussion between harm reduction versus abstinence; it’s challenging at times to find the balance between client centered treatment and also making recommendations to the court. One of the ways they make recommendations to the court is through the UA (commitment, process).

Staff is sometimes feeling pressured to become enforcers because they need to write the court notes for court. It’s very different than writing clinical reports. Clinical note is very different from court note. That takes away the awareness from the what am I (staff) doing – to what are you (client) doing. Lack of community resources in a resource-rich city because lack of space (beds) and big stigma of working in drug services.

lisbon

When change came over him

Charles Houston – public health.

Mr Houston, once a drug court participant – now working for the city and county, as a family liaison – spoke about how important drug court is. He was running (there was a warrant), but then change came over him. He called the court himself. They asked him, do you want to try it – drug court? Judge reviewed monthly progress, fostered accountability. They showed him a different way, the strengths that he had, the ability to make change.

While drug courts benefit certain groups of persons who use drugs, the jury is still out there when judging their overall effectiveness and organisation. Yes, treatment is voluntary but court mandated – the other option is jail.

AMERSA – what’s in the name?

AMERSA, formerly known as the association for medical education and research in substance abuse was recently renamed. Now it is The Association for Multidisciplinary Education and Research in Substance use and Addiction. The association’s mission is to improve health and well-being through interdisciplinary leadership in substance use education, research, clinical care and policy. Text taken from www.amersa.org

If you enjoyed reading about this year’s conference, you may like to read my notes from the previous years:

39th meeting in Washington, DC, November 5th, 2015

38th meeting in San Francisco, CA, November 4th, 2014

Getting the most out of the Conference of the College on Problems of Drugs Dependence #CPDD2015

June 15, 2015 – The conference of the College of Problems on Drugs Dependence took place in Phoenix, Arizona. When I learned that my paper was accepted, I decided to make the most out of the conference. I wanted to network. I found a blog by NICOLA KOPER especially helpful. She described how networking at conferences has resulted in more than one seminal and persistent research collaboration, and in joint publications. Koper also offered four tips on how you can make the most of conferences and use them to elevate the quality of your research programme. Here’s how I used them to make the most out of my conference.

Photocredit: cpdd.org

Make the rounds at meals

Talk to the person before and after you in the coffee line. Talk to people you don’t know, make photos with them. But remember that some conferences have a policy of no photography of presentations or data allowed.
Lunch early and create more time for standing by your poster. But stay out late, people will remember you.

Go on the field trips

Field trips are gold mines for networking, if you can do them. Re-discover your interest. Engage playfulness. Enjoy the process. Connect with your curiosity.

Spend time with your students

They’ll appreciate it. This tip is more applicable for senior investigators. Other senior tasks are to attend steering committee meetings and to prepare talks or presentations.

Go to lots of talks

Talk to the speakers after their talks. Before the conference, prepare a list of people + match ideas or questions that you can ask.

Remember to balance the talks with quality networking time.  How to (create the opportunities for) meeting people? Dance, don’t fight it.
Hang around; position yourself strategically so that you get a maximum exposure to random bystanders. Leave your bag in your room. Retreat and be quiet. Tiredness as well as weather affects us all. Take time to rest. If the climate differs from your home-country greatly, come early, adapt, adjust and fly.
Aim for at least one quality conversation per day. You can’t talk to 1000 attendees every day, but you can probably manage to talk to one of them every day. Pre-conference meetings are good for this too. Smaller audiences create more opportunities for mingling.
Go mall. You will meet more people than if you rush through the hotel. Opportunistic networking is equally helpful as targeted networking for creating new relationships.
Use discussions with your friends as spring boards for approaching new people and groups.
Three things are certain in life: Death, Taxes and Late-comers.
Stand by your poster for as long as possible. The late-comers have typically more time to talk to you.
If giving a talk yourself, remember how you present yourself. What words do you use to describe your samples? Scientists are people too; they used stigmatizing language, such as, alcoholics, in their award speeches.
Also, check out Jennifer Polk’s recent blog on UniversityAffairs: Conferences are for networking (@fromphdtolife).

New paper out now: Psychosocial Interventions for Alcohol use among problem drug users

May 18thMany people in methadone treatment receive it through their primary care provider. As many also drink alcohol excessively, there is a need to address alcohol use to improve health outcomes for these individuals. We examined problem alcohol use and its treatment among people attending primary care for methadone maintenance treatment, using baseline data from a feasibility study of an evidence-based complex intervention to improve care.
 


What have we found: Clinical records indicated that 24 patients (19%) were screened for problem alcohol use in the 12 months prior to data collection, with problem alcohol use identified in 14 (58% of those screened, 11% of the full sample). Of those who screened positive for problem alcohol use, five received a brief intervention by a GP, and none were referred to specialist treatment.
Scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) revealed the prevalence of hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking to be 25% (n=26), 6% (n=6), and 16% (n=17) respectively.
Only 12 (11.3%) AUDIT questionnaires concurred with corresponding clinical records that a patient had any/ no problem alcohol use. Regular use of primary care was evident, as 25% had attended their GP more than 12 times during the past three months.

What does this mean: Comparing clinical records with patients’ experience of SBIRT can shed light on the process of care.  Alcohol screening of people who attend primary care for substance use treatment is not routinely conducted.   Interventions that enhance the care of problem alcohol use among this high-risk group are a priority.
To read the full article, go to the website of the Journal of Dual Diagnosis:  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15504263.2015.1027630#.VVtIBpO6eJY
Cite as: Klimas, J., Henihan, AM., McCombe, G., Swan, D., Anderson, R., Bury, G., Dunne, C., Keenan, E., Saunders, J., Shorter, GW., Smyth, B.,  Cullen, W. (2015) Psychosocial INTerventions for Alcohol use among problem drug users (PINTA): Baseline feasibility data. Journal of Dual Diagnosis 11(2):96-106

76th Annual Conference of College on Problems of Drug Dependence: Decide to be fearless& fabulous

Not one, but two conferences in Puerto Rico made my trip fantastic. As usual, the NIDA International forum happened for the 15th time on the weekend before the Conference of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. The lines below offer some insights from these meetings.

Integration of addiction treatment into primary care: the portals of entry

Is abstinence related with good health? Is decreased drug use related with good health?
Tae Woo Park and Richard Saitz asked these questions in a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial of 589 patients using cocaine or cannabis with very low dependence proportion among the sample (ASSIST score >27). To answer their questions, they used clinical measures of good health, such as, SIP-D, PHQ-9, and EUROQoL. Health outcomes were associated with decreases in illicit drug use in primary. However, abstinence and decreased use may represent very different magnitudes. Self-reports related dysphoria could also play a role in the differences. It takes a long time to make improvement in those consequences? 6 months of follow up observations may not be enough. Patient-preferred outcomes are paramount: do they want to have a score lower than XY on PHQ-9? What outcomes are important for them?
The TOPCARE (www.mytopcare.org) project implemented guidelines for potential opioid misuse (Jan Liebschutz). Her slides blew up half-way through the presentation but she delivered the talk excellently. Nurse care management was a component of the guideline implementation trial. Academic detailing (45min, with opioid prescribing expert) included principles of prescribing brochure and difficult case discussion. Is academic detailing effective? The Cochranesystematic review of literature found small-to-medium variable effects. The preliminary results of the project show that the nurse manager programme is a no brainer.
Rich Saitz commented on the sad state of affairs in the addiction treatment, where only 10% of people with addiction are in treatment. Integrated care is the best thing since the sliced bread, but where’s the evidence? His research showed no added benefit of integrated versus care as usual. Why? Maybe, addiction is not a one thing, but we treat it like one thing. Dr Tai provoked the audience with a question: “Do our patients with addiction have the capability to participate in the treatment planning and referral?” If they seek medical care for their broken leg and we refer them to an addiction specialist, will they go? most likely not.
But it is the same with hypertension. Referral is a process and not a once-off thing. Although they may not follow our advice at the first visit, a rapport built by a skilled professional over a series of discussions can help them get the most appropriate care.

Does the efficacy of medications for addiction decrease over time?

An old saying among doctors states “One should prescribe a new medication quickly before it loses its efficacy”. Elias Klemperer pooled the data from several Cochrane systematic reviews on addiction medicines, such as, NIRT gum, Acamprosate, or Buproprion. Their effectiveness decreased over time. The changes in methodologies might have caused the decline; also the sponsorship of trials, target populations or publication bias.

Write, wrote, written

Primary author is in the driver’s seat, others are passengers. Primary author pulls the train. Dr Adam Carrico(UCSF) asked us “What are you really passionate about?” Find it and use your passion for those themes to drive your writing habit. Decide to be fearless& fabulous. Develop a writing routine. Put together a queue of writing projects and don’t churn out 2 products at the same time, one of them will suffer. Schedule writing retreats with colleagues. Set Timelines for writing grant and programme time for reviews by trusted people, give people a warning that this is what you’re planning to do. The JAMA June 2014 issue offers useful tips on how to write an editorial.

Dr Knudsen reported on the editorial internship of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment – JSAT, which started in 2006, with Dr McGovern (current editor) and Knudsen as the 1stfellows. Success rate of the fellowship applications is 2/30-45, prior involvement is appreciated (peer reviewer, submission). The new 2014 fellows are: Drs Madson and Rash. In the one year of the fellowship, the fellows typically review 12-15 manuscripts, some years, as a managing editor of a special issue. The Drug and Alcohol Dependence journal has a similar scheme.

Check out the http://www.cpddblog.com/

Dennis McCarty won the 2014 NIDA International Program Award of Excellence

 June 14, 2014 ― Professor Dennis McCarty, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine at Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), and director of the Substance Abuse Policy Center in the Center for Health Systems Effectiveness, has been awarded by the 2014 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) International Program.

The award is for Excellent Mentoring. Dr. McCarty mentors clinicians and researchers who test emerging drug abuse treatments in community settings through the Western States Node of the NIDA Clinical Trials Network, which he codirects. He extends his mentoring to state and local policymakers through his role as director of the Substance Abuse Policy Center in the Center for Health Systems Effectiveness, which works to link policy, practice, and research on substance abuse treatment.

Dr. McCarty also is scientific director of the University of Amsterdam Summer Institute on Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction. I met Dennis in Amsterdam in 2011. He lectured for several days on different policy models and evidence based treatments. Two years later, on March 1, 2013, I joined Dennis as a NIDA CTN INVEST Fellow. INVEST is International Visiting Scientists & Technical Exchange Program for drug abuse research. Oregon Health & Sciences University hosted my six months fellowship during which I assessed the use of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBIRT) for alcohol use disorders among patients receiving agonist medication for opioid use disorders. Visit this post to read more about how I got here. I did not think that the summer school would lead to a fellowship in Portland, OR and I’m most grateful that it did.

With Dennis, I have learned about things I thought did not exist. For example, about researchers who enjoy writing. Writing up research projects is a task that many new researchers fear the most. Dennis is a master writer and his craft is contagious; I’ve discovered a need in me, a strong urge to write a lot and in many different formats. Dennis received the award today, at the 19th annual NIDA International Forum in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The 2014 Forum focused on “Building International Collaborative Research on Drug Abuse.”

Four other experts were awarded 2014 NIDA International Awards of Excellence. Mr. O’Keeffe, a professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, was honored for Excellence in International Leadership. The award for Excellence in Collaborative Research went to Dr. Chawarski, Ph.D., Yale School of Medicine, and Dr. Kasinather, Ph.D., Universiti Sains Malaysia. A special award was presented to Dr. Dewey, Ph.D., Virginia Commonwealth University, in recognition of his service to the addiction research community as founder of the Friends of NIDA, and his research on how opioids and marijuana change brain and contribute to tolerance and addiction.

NIDA International Awards of Excellence winners are selected based on contributions to areas essential to the mission of the NIDA International Program: mentoring, international leadership, and collaborative research. Anybody can suggest a nomination to NIDA. Read more at www.drugabuse.gov/international/awards-excellence.

The NIDA International Program connects people across continents to find evidence-based solutions for addiction, and drug-related HIV/AIDS. NIDA is part of the National Institutes of Health – the principal research agency of the U.S. Government and a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Story first released by OHSU Newsroom: http://www.ohsu.edu/xd/about/news_events/news/index.cfm